What is British cinema? – Essay plan

What is British cinema? – Essay plan

Introduction – a brief synopsis of what British cinema actually is and why it is so important to the British people and the British economy. British cinema is an increasingly important feature of the British economy and in some cases the way the rest of the world sees the British people. I will extend my initial introduction and make it more clear what in fact makes a film British and whether aspects such as funding are limiting what Britain can produce without outside help (this is where films such as Harry Potter which is technically ‘British’ are questioned because majority funding comes from American production companies). With the UK film council being cut and limited government help will the British film industry be able to continue growing at the rate it previously had been.

Section 1 – As an initial focus point I will be looking into the history of British cinema, despite the fact much of this research may not be able to be used as its will not be particularly contemporary, I do feel it is vital that if writing about British cinema the history should be referenced as well as what is happening in the present. This also enables me to be able to write about the transition from the past of British cinema to the present and how this has changed the industry as a whole. The British film industry was massively successful in the 50s-70s with ‘Hammer Horror’ and ‘Carry On’ films very much ruling the film industry, from the 80s to the early 00s the British film industry was pretty much non-existent, from then to now it is argued to be the best it has ever been.

Section 2 – I will be looking at whether there are any major players in the British film industry, looking at if certain people have single handedly made a significant contribution to the industry, such as Edgar wright, Simon Pegg, Ben Wheatley, etc.…

Section 3 – I will be looking at whether the British film industry is vibrant enough, despite the British film industry being more successful than it has ever been in recent decades, is the industry in fact limiting itself to a very confined set of genres such as comedy, rom/com or gritty urban. Is this meaning up and coming people are trying to follow this trend and confining themselves to what they know works when we should in fact be branching out into other genres to allow the industry to keep expanding.

Conclusion – This is where all the points raised will be summed up, it is unclear whether there is a definitive answer to my question as it is such a broad topic, all of the factors aforementioned must be summed up and taken into account to state what British cinema currently is and why it is so important whilst also making it clear that the industry needs to develop and continue to expand before it reaches another dark age so to speak.


why isn’t there equality in the superhero world? essay plan

  • To begin my essay I will talk about the trials and tribulations of living in society if you’re not a straight white male and how you are treated as different then I will link it into the world of superheroes as they are either mutants, aliens but most definitely in some way different which is why this would be perfect to introduce aspects of homosexuality, then I will go into mild detail on how im going to explain how it doesn’t and how it could represent this.
  • In the second paragraph I will go on to talk about the fans point of view of this non diversity and see how they have reacted whilst also looking at what the fans want in fan fictions.
  • So I will begin to talk about the marvel comics industry being a fairly western ideology driven company as they mainly focus on the male superheroes as they give them intricate storylines which can cross different universes and story arch’s but the other types of character have relatively bland and flat or non existant stories.
  • Then I will start to talk about the film adaptations and that there is very little diversity in the lead roles and only recently has there been rumours of a new homosexual superhero
  • Then for my conclusion I will some up the evidence I have gathered and using the theories ive used but then coming to the overall conclusion that there is no reason to why they couldn’t involve more diversity in their characters as a superhero would be the perfect way to explain its ok to be different.

Why has the media given more airtime to disabled sport than in previous times?- Essay Plan

The media has played a big part in making people a lot more aware of disabled sport compared to 40 years ago when disabled sport was never even considered to be something worth watching. One of the main reasons towards disabled sports success was the London 2012 Paralympics. ‘Some 2.7 million Paralympics tickets have been sold – beating targets by 200,000 and predicted sales by £10m.’[1] This implies that people are beginning to show more interest in disabled sport.  This encourages the media to cover sporting events with disabled individuals due to the extra demand to watch this type of sport as society increases its awareness and interest in disabled sport.


However, an article from the BBC was recently published questioning the long-term impact of the Paralympic legacy.  ‘A year on from the Paralympics, the event’s legacy “hangs in the balance” as attitudes towards disabled people fail to improve.’[2] This suggests that society did take some interest in the leading disabled sports events however over time appear to have lost that interest. ‘In a survey of more than 1000 disabled UK adults, 81% say attitudes towards them have not improved while more than one in five believes life has got worse in the 12 months since the Games.’[3] This tells us that the public has now dropped their curiosity in disabled sport, which may then have on effect on the amount of airtime the media choose to assign to disabled sport.


However, in 2011, an article was published by The Guardian saying ‘the proportion of disabled people is rising and now represents 1 billion people – 15% of the global population.’[4] This significant increase in the disabled population in relation to the rest of society could suggest that the percentage of people taking part in disabled sport is also rising giving the media more of an incentive to cover events or games. ‘More disabled people in Wales are taking part in sport than ever before, according to new figures’. This implies that the percentage of disabled people taking part in disabled sport is rising and, therefore, increasing awareness in society which may contribute to the media giving more airtime to disabled sport.


Another consideration is effect of global warfare, and the media coverage of significant conflicts, which have highlighted the tragic effects of war when soldiers are injured and become disabled through their injuries. ‘One of the main developments in Paralympic sport across the world in recent years has been the number of injured service personnel becoming involved.’[5]  Since 2001 the United Nations has been at war with Afghanistan and Iraq and from then ‘at least 39,914’ [6] soldiers have been injured whilst fighting – increasing the amount of disabled population. As soldiers are trained to fight they have to keep themselves fit by maintaining regular exercise, but as they get injured they may not be able to serve in wars but are disciplined to continue with this need to exercise on a consistent and regular basis.  Jon-Allen Butterworth, ‘The 26-year-old lost his left arm in a rocket attack in Basra in 2007 while serving with the RAF as a weapons technician’ then decided to take up cycling and ‘he won gold and broke the world record in the C5 1km time trial at his first World Championships in 2011 and repeated the feat earlier this year in Los Angeles. He is set to compete in five events in London – the kilo, 4km pursuit and team sprint on the track and the road race and time trial at Brands Hatch.’[7]

Next Paragraphs:

  • Who hosted the Paralympic games? Did this effect the airtime given compared to the Olympic games? (Channels etc)
  • The Olympics may have been a run up to the Paralympic games, got people interested.
  • Paralympic Ceremony?
  • Paralympic Torch?
  • Main sports attract more viewers?
  • Popular/Successful Icons- the disabled performers who succeed give their country more airtime?
  • Society Evolving/Being more aware

Why and How do certain TV shows gain a cult following? Essay Plan

Paragraph 1 – Introduction

– Definition of a Cult
“Is a group of fans who are highly dedicated to a specific area of culture. A film, book, musical artist, television series, or video game, among other things, will be said to have a cult following when it has a small but very passionate fan base

– Introduction to Game of Thrones
A TV show with a cult following is the HBO series “Game of Thrones”. Game of Thrones is based on the hit book series “A Song of Ice and Fire” written by George R.R. Martin and is a medieval fantasy. The TV series is considered to be one of the most highly acclaimed TV series of all time, with one of the most passionate fan bases ever with opinions of a more extreme fan base than the likes of Harry Potter and The Hunger Games.

Paragraph 2 – GOT Audience

– Highest number of viewers
Game of Thrones highest viewed episode came in series 3 episode 6 “The Climb” which aired on May 5th 2013. This episode attracted approximately 5.5 million viewers in the U.S. 
Premiere viewers – season 1,2,3

– The Red Wedding views

Paragraph 3, 4 + 5- Advertising
– 5 senses campaign 
“HBO needed to raise awareness about the premiere of Game of Thrones in a way that appealed to both new audiences and hardcore fans of the book series. Campfire’s team, led by Creative Director Steve Coulson rolled out a five-week campaign that engaged each of the five senses. At the same, an online fan engagement campaign was launched in which online communities worked together to unlock exclusive video rewards. Each video was connected to the five senses and chosen to increase overall buzz and anticipation for the show.”

“The first sense in the campaign was scent – carefully curated packages including an antiqued box filled with custom-made scents from the regions of Westeros and illustrated manuscripts were sent to journalists, bloggers and influencers. The resulting coverage and “unboxing videos” kicked off an intriguing campaign for a wide audience.”

“The second sense in the campaign was sound – with the launch of “The Inn at the Crossroads”. This “interactive sound environment” lived on the The Maester’s Pathsite, and allowed users to walk around the inn and eavesdrop on different conversations. The environment was recorded using an advanced binaural recording setup that created a simulated 3D effect when experienced with headphones.”

“The third sense in the campaign was sight. This was achieved by bringing to life a 700 ft ice wall (that was later featured prominently on the show) through a game-like experience on The Maester’s Path Site. Using only the Flash plugin, a section of the Wall became explorable and included social interaction and challenging gameplay.”

“The fourth sense in the campaign was touch – or “feel”. To achieve this, an app for both iPhone and iPad was built to create a “climate-driven storytelling experience” for fans. Called “Ice & Fire” – this app illustrated the extremes of heat and cold in Westeros. It also provided a glimpse into the different regions of the kingdom based on the forecast in the user’s personal geographic 

“The fifth and final sense of the campaign was taste. Tom Colicchio of Top Chef created a series of regional dishes from the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros, distributed via food trucks in New York & LA. Each day, a recipe video featuring Colicchio was released, and clues to the truck’s locations were posted on Facebook and Twitter. This resulted in long lines of fans waiting in anticipation and garnered widespread, mainstream press interest.”

– Requires fans involvement 
– Posters – fan art
– French artist
– Official posters
– Comic con 
– HBO Store
– Clothing worn by fans – advertising 
Twitter account – official and fan 
– Facebook page

Paragraph 6 – Theories 
– Related to paragraph 3, 4 & 5 

Paragraph 7 – Fans Devotion 
– BBC article
– Fancy dress

Paragraph 8 – GOT origins
– Origins of Game of Thrones
The origins of the Game of Thrones series comes from the book series “A Song of Ice and Fire” the series consists of 5 books so far with 2 yet to be released. The name of the series comes from the first book of the series “A Game of Thrones” and the series follows the books chronologically. 

– Origins of GOT cult

Paragraph 9 – Other Cults
– Look at other cults
– Breaking Bad
– Harry Potter
– Fight Club

– Look at the origins of them
– Look at book related cults 
– Book I read in film studies closet…
… About film cults (fight club and…
… The warriors) 
– Tv Cults – Breaking Bad Cult

Paragraph 10 – Conclusion

The emergence of manufactured pop and does it have a positive or negative impact on the industry? – Essay Plan

What is manufactured pop?

  • A manufactured pop artist/ band are usually created by a record company. They are created so that the companies make and keep most of the profit that is made from the artist’s music.
  • Examples of manufactured pop artists are one direction, spice girls, Leona Lewis as they have been created by record companies to make profit.
  • Talk about the conventions of a manufactured pop artist.
  • Do they have a positive or negative impact on the industry?
  • Are they what the audience prefers?

The power of television shows and reality television shows:

  • Television shows such as the X factor and the voice create manufactured pop artists.
  • These shows give us an insight on the process in which manufactured pop artists are created.
  • Many manufactured pop artists come from reality television shows. For example, Olly Murs, Leona Lewis, One Direction, Kelly Clarkson and Girls Aloud.
  • Do shows such as the X factor and the voice influence our choice in music?
  • What makes the shows so popular? Maybe mention Uses and Gratifications theory? Are the shows a positive or negative for industry?

Different manufactured pop artists:

  • Look at different manufactured pop artists and see how many of their singles/ albums have been sold.
  • What makes them so popular?
  • From this it could maybe give an idea of whether or not manufactured pop artists are a good or bad thing.

The power of institutions:

  • Have a look at the music companies and see what they control.
  • How much control they have over what we see?

Music companies:

  • Look at different music companies and see what types of artists they have. If they have any manufactured pop artist I will try and see how much money is made and how much profit the music companies make.
  • Also, look at the artists from different genres and see how much money they make and how much profit the companies make.
  • Compare the different artists.
  • Go and to talk about whether manufactured pop is a positive or negative thing for the industry.

Positive or negative thing for the industry:

  • Conclusion: I will talk about whether or not manufactured pop artists are positive or negative for the music industry and I will include facts and information to show whether or now it is a good or bad thing.


How do audiences react differently to theatre when translated from stage to screen or vice versa? – Essay Plan

Differences of movie adaptations

– Must be performed on a bigger scale – Usually adds to spectacle – Can take away from substance – Audiences might be blown away by mise-en-scene etc, but can take away from the enjoyment of the story being told.

– Auteur theory – people go to see the films because of director – People may enjoy film more because it’s being directed by a well-known and admired director

– Hollywood star system – May not have been drawn to see the film as much without well-known actors in

– Movies can afford much better advertising – Without advertising, audiences may never have heard about the movie

– Films shown in movie theatres – Much more likely to have film disrupted – ruins atmosphere for audience – Affects enjoyment


Compare to stage shows

– Actors have limited space in which to perform and props to use – More intimate for both audience and actors

– Actors have much more responsibility to remember many lines – Only have the one chance – e.g If an actor forgets lines can ruin mood of the scene for audience

– They’re more emotionally attached to their character – Journey through the performance with them – Actors in movies film through ‘takes’. – Stage actors reactions and emotions can be more genuine, making it more believable for audience

– Actors connect with audience – Witness reaction directl – Can make the audience feel much more emotionally connected to the piece of theatre they’re seeing

– Rely heavily on word of mouth to attract audiences – cheaper to produce – If less popular than other shows, it may not do so well


Expand on Hollywood star system

– Many movies feature famous Hollywood stars to attract audiences – Believed that audiences will enjoy a film more when they know of actors playing roles – Big actors attract mass audience, West End/Broadway stars attract more niche audience

– New pieces of theatre however may also use famous actors – e.g. James Corden in One Man, Two Guvnors

– Many film stars have walked the boards in theatre before – Money lies in film, but credibility lies in theatre – Can be to revive a career, avoid typecasting or simply for love of the theatre


Film/stage adaptations can help renew audience interest

– New song/scene made specifically for movie – e.g ‘Suddenly’ in Les Miserables

– Updating an old story – Changing song orders or adding in new scenes – e.g 2004 Phantom movie



How have women’s roles changed in postmodern horror films? – Essay plan

Feedback please. I think I may have gone off topic. 


How have women’s roles changed in postmodern horror films?

Has the power women had in their roles and the importance of their roles in the old horror films such as ‘Dracula’, ‘Psycho’ and ‘The Shining’ changed in postmodern films such as ‘Silent Hill’, ‘Cabin in the Woods’ and ‘The descent’. Women used to be portrayed as the beauty that seduces and captivates the creature. This is best summed up by the character of Carl Denham in ‘King Kong’[1] when he said “It wasn’t the airplanes. It was beauty killed the beast”. Although ‘King Kong’ isn’t a horror it is still a clear example of what women’s role in film used to be. Also with the change of women both socially and politically has this had an effect on their role in film?

In many of the old horror films in the early 1900’s such as: ‘Dracula’, ‘Frankenstein’ and ‘Phantom of the Opera’, the female role is played by a young woman and is usually seen upon as the object of the creature’s desire. In ‘Dracula’ the women is held captive by Count Dracula and is saved by male protagonist. The film ‘Psycho’, released in the early 1960’s, was considered very controversial as it showed an unmarried couple in bed together, which at the time was unheard of. This then led to a trend in women nudity in horror films and making it acceptable for unmarried women and men to be having sex. Psycho also had the famous shower scene in which Lila Crane (Vera Miles) is stabbed to death in the shower by her killer. This scene also demonstrates this particular woman’s vulnerability and by doing so it then exposes all women’s helplessness in these types of old films.

In postmodern horror films females tend to play a stronger role. This includes playing the role of the main protagonist, main antagonist and playing the majority of the characters. For example, in ‘The Descent’, It is an all-female cast with the exception of one male character who dies at the start of the film. In films such as ‘Resident Evil’ and ‘Silent Hill’ the main protagonist is a strong female role, which is a contrast to the old horrors with the weak female role with lack of control. Here it is interesting to look into how the roles contrast from the old horrors to the postmodern horrors. In ‘The Cabin In the Woods’ there are two female main roles which both contrast each other, one being the stereotypical ditsy blonde who ends up being killed and then the smart, virgin girl (to be seen as pure) who makes it through to the end. Here the comparison between the modern characters can be drawn. The modern women roles can still show some behaviours that also follow old stereotypes such as the damsel in distress.

Women had no rights and nothing was done about it up until the 19th century, in Britain, where the Feminism movement began.[2] Then in the twentieth century things began to change. Many protests took place for women to have the right to vote. This led to them being given the ballot in 1918. But only women over the age of 21 who could vote whereas the voting age for men stood at 18. It took until 1928 for women to be given equal voting rights.[3] At this time women’s role in film still hadn’t changed that much. Examples of this can be ‘The Singing Fool’, ‘Lights of New York’ and ‘Alraune’ which were all released in 1928 and all were aimed around a main male role. Horrors were not popular at this time. In ‘The Singing Fool’ the female is portrayed as a gold digging show girl who Al Stone (the male protagonist) takes a fancy too. In the ‘Lights of New York’ there are two female roles, one is a “chorus-girl with a heart of gold”[4] and the other isn’t spoken about that much and ends up being the killer in the end as she hands herself in. Then in ‘Arlaune’ is based around a rich professor who conducts and experiment on a women from a low social status, she leaves the professor to try and make her own life again but she is tracked and under watch by the professor until she is older where the professor then steps in with her life again, she tries to leave and in the end results in her being chased with a knife by the professor and being saved by the professor’s young nephew Franz. This showing that women are represented as less innocent characters in some films of this time also giving them slight more power that they didn’t have before this time but still displays patriarchy. The horror genre at this time, although uncommon, displayed women as very venerable and having to be saved by another male which is following the ‘damsel in distress’ role. During the twentieth century women also became more important in supporting total warfare, as housewives, munitions workers, replacements for men in service, nurses, and combat soldiers.[5] The second world war was the beginning of women working with a big increase of working women in the 1960’s. This giving women more power. At this time films such as ‘Psycho’ (which is talked about in the second paragraph), ‘City of the Dead’ and ‘Dracula’s Brides’ were released as horror became a more common genre.  In the later half of the 20th century some nations began to legalize abortion. This was a very controversial subject and sparked heated debates and in some cases even violence.[2]


What I will look at in my next paragraphs:

  • The ‘Scream’ films
  • Horror comedy cross genre and its stereotypes
  • The political and social roles of women along side their role and power in film
  • Feminism, Post feminism, Third-wave feminism and Patriarchy



[1] http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0024216/quotes

[2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women’s_history

[3] http://expo09.hubpages.com/hub/change-in-roles-of-women

[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lights_of_New_York_(1928_film)

[5] Bernard Cook, ed, Women and War: Historical Encyclopedia from Antiquity to the Present (2 vol, 2006)